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Latex allergy occurs when the body's immune system reacts to proteins found in natural rubber latex.
Exposure to latex often results in contact dermatitis symptoms. However, in some individuals, latex allergy can trigger a life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis. If you suspect you have an allergy to latex, visit an allergist/immunologist to discuss the best prevention and treatment methods.
Natural rubber latex is a processed plant product used in the production of sterile gloves, balloons and condoms. It is derived almost exclusively from the sap of the tree Hevea brasiliensis found in Africa and Southeast Asia.
Certain fruits and vegetables (such as bananas, chestnuts, kiwi, avocado and tomato) can cause allergic symptoms in some latex-sensitive individuals. Synthetic products, including latex house paints, have not been shown to pose any hazard to latex-sensitive individuals.
Natural rubber latex is a milky fluid found in rubber trees. The problem is not with the rubber itself, but a contaminating protein in the rubber. Natural rubber latex is used to make some gloves, condoms, balloons, rubber bands, erasers and toys. Latex can also be found in bottle nipples and pacifiers. It may be surprising, but latex paints do not contain any natural rubber latex protein.
Latex allergy was unusual until the late 1980s when more healthcare workers began using powdered latex gloves to control infections. In the 1990s, manufacturers found ways to make gloves with synthetic latex and/or powder-free, so the number of new cases has decreased.
Reactions to Latex
Allergy symptoms are the result of a chain reaction that starts in the immune system. Your immune system controls how your body defends itself. If you have an allergy, your immune system identifies something that is typically harmless as an invader or allergen. With latex allergy, it overreacts by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE) that can react with proteins found in the natural rubber latex. These antibodies travel to cells that release chemicals, causing an allergic reaction. This reaction usually appears in the nose, lungs, throat, sinuses, ears, lining of the stomach or on the skin.
People with this allergy have symptoms such as urticaria or hives, itching or flushing, swelling, sneezing, runny nose, cough, wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, nausea, dizziness or lightheadedness. Any combination of these symptoms can be a sign of anaphylaxis (pronounced an-a-fi-LAK-sis), a life-threatening reaction that needs immediate medical attention.
Certain other chemicals used to make latex gloves can cause a delayed onset rash which only forms where the material touches the skin. This is called contact dermatitis. Red, itchy bumps or blisters usually appear within 12 to 48 hours. These symptoms are irritating, but not life-threatening.
Latex can also become airborne and cause respiratory symptoms. For example, latex proteins can attach to the cornstarch powder used in latex gloves. As powdered latex gloves are used, the starch particles and latex allergens become airborne, where they can be inhaled or come into contact with your nose or eyes and cause symptoms. High concentrations of this allergenic powder have been measured in intensive care units and operating rooms. Using non-powdered latex gloves, or synthetic (vinyl, nitrile) gloves reduces the risk of these reactions. The capacity of latex products-especially gloves-to cause allergic reactions varies enormously by brand and by production lot.
Treating Latex Allergy
The first step in treating latex allergy is being aware of the problem. An allergist/immunologist, often referred to as an allergist, has the knowledge and experience to diagnose the problem and develop a treatment plan.
Your allergist may prescribe an antihistamine to take for mild latex allergy symptoms. Your allergist may also prescribe epinephrine, or adrenalin, to keep with you in case you have a severe reaction to latex. Your physician can help decide whether you should wear a bracelet that alerts people about your allergy.
If your allergy is severe, it is important to tell your family, employer, school personnel and healthcare providers about your allergy. If you need surgery, ask that everything be latex-free.
If you have trouble breathing when you are around latex, stay away from areas where powdered gloves are used and avoid all direct contact with latex.
If you need to wear gloves, try substituting vinyl or nitrile gloves for latex. Synthetic latex gloves do not contain natural latex and are another option. These work in nearly all situations, including surgery, but they may be more expensive. If you tend to get a skin rash reaction to latex, latex gloves made without additional chemicals may be a good choice.
Latex condoms may cause serious allergic reactions in some people. If either partner has a latex allergy, synthetic rubber condoms are the best choice, although natural skin condoms may be used.
Who is Most at Risk?
Healthcare and rubber industry workers are at more risk for developing serious allergic reactions to latex. Also at increased risk are people who have had multiple medical procedures or surgeries. This is because the greatest danger of a severe reaction happens when latex comes in contact with moist areas of the body, such as during surgery.
If you have a latex allergy, you also have a greater risk of being allergic to certain foods including bananas, avocadoes, kiwi fruit and European chestnuts. These foods and latex share certain proteins which cause a reaction in people with this allergy.
People who react to latex typically develop a skin rash. This is irritating, but not life-threatening.
There is no cure for latex allergy. People with severe reactions must avoid latex.
If you have trouble breathing when you are around latex, or if you get a combination of symptoms, get immediate medical attention. These symptoms include hives, itching or flushing, swelling, sneezing, runny nose, cough, wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, nausea, dizziness or lightheadedness.
An allergist is the best physician to determine if you are allergic to latex.